Besides the classic biography by Boswell, see biographies by Sir John Hawkins (1787; ed. by B. Davis, 1961; ed. by O. M. Brack, Jr., 2009), J. W. Krutch (1944), J. L. Clifford (1955), W. J. Bate (1977), D. Greene (upd. ed. 1989), R. DeMaria, Jr. (1993), P. Martin (2008), J. Meyers (2008), and D. Nokes (2009); critical studies by W. J. Bate (1955), R. B. Schwartz (1971), P. Quennell (1973), J. T. Boulton, ed. (1978), P. Fussell (1986), N. Hudson (1988), D. Greene (2d ed., 1990), and G. S. Gross (1992); H. Hitchings, Defining the World (2005); R. DeMaria, Jr., and G. J. Kolb, ed., Johnson on the English Language (2005); J. L. Clifford, Johnsonian Studies, 1887–1950 (1951; supplement, 1962); J. L. Clifford and D. J. Greene, A Survey and Bibliography of Critical Studies (1970); D. Greene and J. A. Vance, Bibliography of Johnsonian Studies, 1970–1985 (1987); J. Lynch, Bibliography of Johnsonian Studies, 1986–1998 (2000).
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