Joyce's works have acquired a small army of scholars, patiently unraveling their numerous textual obscurities. Many of their articles appear in the James Joyce Quarterly. See his letters (Vol. I ed. by S. Gilbert, 1957; Vol. II and III ed. by R. Ellman, 1966); biographies by C. H. Peake (1977), R. Ellman (1959, rev. ed. 1982), C. J. Anderson (1986), B. K. Scott (1987), E. O'Brien (1999), and G. Bowker (2012); biographies of periods in Joyce's life by P. Costello (1992) and J. McCourt (2000); biography of Nora Joyce by B. Maddox (1989, repr. 2000); studies by A. Burgess (1968), A. W. Litz (1964, 1972), R. Ellman (1977), H. Kenner (1978, 1987), D. Attridge (1990), and D. Pierce (2008); bibliographies by J. J. Slocum and H. Cohoon (1953, repr. 1972) and T. F. Staley (1989).