Keith, James Francis Edward, 1696–1758, Scottish field marshal of Prussia; brother of George Keith, 10th earl marischal [marshal] of Scotland. He participated in the Jacobite uprising of 1715 and in the abortive invasion of 1719 with his brother. Escaping to the Continent, he first entered the Spanish service and then went to Russia, where he gained honor in both civil and military offices. Later he went to Prussia and became close friends with Frederick the Great, who made him a field marshal (1747). Keith entered the circle of Europe's leading intellectuals and rendered great service to Prussia in the early part of the Seven Years War. He was killed in the battle of Hochkirch.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.