Llywelyn ap Gruffydd
Llywelyn or Llewelyn ap Gruffydd (hləwĕlˈĭn äp grĭfˈĭħ, lōĕlˈĭn) [key], d. 1282, Welsh prince, grandson of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth. He succeeded (1246) his uncle, David II, as ruler of North Wales and in 1247, with his brother Owen as coruler, did homage to Henry III of England, surrendering to him a large part of their territory. In 1256, having overthrown Owen, he launched a campaign to recover his lands. He soon won the allegiance of other Welsh princes and by 1263 controlled much of Wales. In the Barons' War he was allied with Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, against Henry III. Montfort's downfall did not check Llywelyn's rise; by the Treaty of Montgomery (1267) he was recognized as prince of Wales—the first official English use of that title, although Llywelyn had assumed it in 1258. On the accession (1272) of Edward I, Llywelyn refused homage to the English king. In the English invasion of 1276 he lost all but a small portion of North Wales and submitted to Edward by the Treaty of Conway (1277). He was killed in a second rebellion in 1282. Llywelyn was the last independent ruler of Wales. His name also appears as Llewelyn ap Griffith.
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