Longo, Luigi (lōēˈjē lôngˈgō) [key], 1900–1980, Italian political leader. He was a founder of the Italian Communist party in 1921. In the Spanish civil war he served as inspector-general of the international brigades and fought personally against Benito Mussolini's troops at Guadalajara. Returning to Italy during World War II, he organized partisan units to fight against the Germans. He was elected to the constituent assembly in 1946 and to parliament in 1948. From 1945 to 1964 he was deputy secretary of the Italian Communist party. He became secretary-general of the party in 1964 and served until 1972, when he was given the largely honorary post of party president.