Louis IV or Louis d'Outremer (lwē dōtrəmĕrˈ) [key] [Fr., = Louis from overseas], 921–54, French king (936–54), son of King Charles III (Charles the Simple). He spent his youth as an exile in England, but at the death of King Raoul he was recalled by the nobles under the leadership of Hugh the Great. However, Louis's energy and independence displeased Hugh, who fought against him with the German king, Otto I, until 942. Captured by the Normans (945), Louis was surrendered to Hugh, by whom he was released only on the cession of Laon (946). Now in alliance with Otto, Louis made war on Hugh and received his submission in 950. Louis was succeeded by his son Lothair.