Lunacharsky, Anatoli Vasilyevich (ənətôˈlyē vəsēˈlyəvĭch lōnəchärˈskē) [key], 1875–1933, Russian revolutionary, dramatist, and critic. He began his revolutionary career in 1892 and joined the Bolshevik party when it appeared, forming with Gorky and Bogdanov the left wing of the group, which was in opposition to Lenin. Later he was Lenin's ally in overthrowing the Kerensky government. His most important position was as commissar of education (1917–29). He advocated the creation of a new proletarian literature, but was also instrumental in the preservation of Russian cultural monuments during the revolution.