Macdonald, Jacques Étienne Joseph Alexandre (zhäk ātyĕnˈzhôzĕfˈ älĕksäNˈdrə mäkdônälˈ) [key], 1765–1840, marshal of France, of Scottish descent. He distinguished himself in the French Revolutionary Wars, particularly in Italy, but was defeated by Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov at the battle of Trebbia (June, 1799). He aided Napoleon's coup of 18 Brumaire (1799). Temporarily in disgrace for defending Jean Victor Moreau, he returned to favor, was created duke of Taranto, and played an important part in the battle of Wagram (1809), the Peninsular War, and the Russian campaign. In the Hundred Days he was loyal to King Louis XVIII.
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