Mangin, Charles Marie Emmanuel (shärl märēˈ ĕmänüĕlˈ mäNzhăNˈ) [key], 1866–1925, French general. A graduate of Saint-Cyr, he served in the Sudan under Jean Marchand and in French North Africa. His works on French colonial activities show concern with colonial development and supply a useful exposition of French colonial policy. Mangin, who commanded in World War I and was prominent in the defense of Verdun, supported a costly policy of offensive warfare as opposed to trench warfare. In 1921 he became a member of the supreme war council and inspector general of colonial troops.