Milyukov or Miliukov, Pavel Nikolayevich (both: päˈvĭl nyĭkəlĪˈəvĭch mēlyōkôfˈ) [key], 1859–1943, Russian political leader and historian. An advocate of parliamentary democracy, he was a founder and leader of the Constitutional Democratic party, organized in 1905, and a member of the duma. After the overthrow of the czarist government in Mar., 1917 (Feb., 1917, O.S.), he became foreign minister in the provisional government of Prince Lvov. His insistence on carrying out Russia's military obligations toward the Allies in World War I made him highly unpopular with the war-weary masses, and in May, 1917, he was forced to resign. An uncompromising opponent of Bolshevism, he settled in Paris after the failure of the counterrevolution against Lenin. Among his historical works is Outlines of Russian Culture (tr., 3 vol., 1942).
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