Mosquera, Tomás Cipriano de (tōmäsˈ sēprēäˈnō ħā mōskāˈrä) [key], 1798–1878, Colombian general and president. He first gained attention by his service in the war against Spain. As president (1845–49), he began as a conservative but became more liberal, sponsoring numerous reforms and encouraging the nation's material growth. After the conservatives gained control in 1856, Mosquera led a successful revolt (1860–62) that resulted (1863) in a federalist United States of Colombia. He served as provisional president until 1864. Domineering, unscrupulous, and violently emotional, he was feared and mistrusted even by his adherents, but he was, nonetheless, a vigorous leader. Although again elected (1866) president, he was imprisoned (1867), tried, and banished. He went to Peru, but returned later to become governor and senator of Cauca.
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