Muhammad VI or Mehmet VI, 1861–1926, last Ottoman sultan (1918–22), brother and successor of Muhammad V. He became sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) near the end of World War I and soon capitulated to the Allies, who occupied Constantinople and sought to rule through him what remained of Turkey. He consented to the extremely harsh peace terms of the Allies (see Sèvres, Treaty of). In the meantime Kemal Atatürk gained control over Anatolia; after his victory over the Greeks he turned on Muhammad, who was deposed in 1922. The sultanate was abolished and the republic of Turkey established. Muhammad fled and died in exile. After his flight he was deposed as caliph, in which capacity he was succeeded by his cousin, Abd al-Majid. In 1924 the caliphate was abolished and all members of the Ottoman house were exiled. Muhammad VI died at San Remo, Italy.
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