Nicolle, Charles Jules Henri (shärl zhül äNrēˈ nēkôlˈ) [key], 1866–1936, French physician and microbiologist. He worked with P. P. É. Roux in Paris and was director of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis from 1903 and professor at the Collège de France, Paris, from 1932. He worked on various diseases, including whooping cough, measles, trachoma, and influenza, and demonstrated (1909) the transmission of typhus by the body louse. For his work on typhus he received the 1928 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
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