Niel, Adolphe (ädôlfˈ nyĕl) [key], 1802–69, marshal of France under Napoleon III. He served with the corps of engineers in the Algerian campaigns, in the French intervention against the Roman republic (1849), in the Crimean War, and in the Italian war of 1859. Becoming minister of war in 1867, he started a program of farseeing military reform that was generally abandoned after his death.
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