Novikov, Nikolai Ivanovich (nyĭkəlĪˈ ēväˈnəvĭch nôˈvēkəf) [key], 1744–1818, Russian journalist and publisher. In 1769, with the Drone, he started the vogue of the satirical magazine modeled on Addison's Spectator. This and subsequent journals were halted by Catherine II in 1774 because of their sharp attacks on serious social injustice. He published several other short-lived satirical journals and huge numbers of books designed to spread enlightenment at a modest price, and again was stopped by imperial order. Novikov was imprisoned (1792–96) for affiliation with the Freemasons. Released a broken man, he retired to study mysticism in seclusion.
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