Orozco, José Clemente (hōsāˈ klāmānˈtā ōrōˈskō) [key], 1883–1949, Mexican muralist, genre painter, and lithographer, grad. Mexican National Agricultural School. He became an architectural draftsman and in 1908 turned to painting. With Diego Rivera he led the renaissance of modern Mexican art. Orozco's work is bold in execution, often brilliant in color, and deals compassionately with social themes, especially human versus machine. From 1917 to 1919 and from 1927 to 1934, Orozco was in the United States. Much of his work is true fresco painting, executed directly on wet plaster, such as his 1930 mural Mankind's Struggle at New School Univ., New York City. His work in the United States also includes Prometheus (Frary Hall, Pomona College, Calif.) and Epic of Culture in the New World (Baker Library, Dartmouth College). There are also several fine murals in Mexico, such as those at the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City and at Guadalajara in the university, governor's palace, and cultural institute.
See catalog by J. Hopkins (1967); autobiography (tr. 1962); M. Helm, Man of Fire (1953, repr. 1971).