Osman Nuri Pasha (ōsmänˈ nōrēˈ päshäˈ) [key], 1837–1900, Turkish general. He fought in the Crimean War of 1854–56 and in Lebanon, Crete, and Arabia in the 1860s and 70s. He was made muşir [marshal] for his successes (1876) in Serbia. In the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 he gallantly defended Pleven in Bulgaria but was ultimately forced to surrender to the Russians. He served almost continuously as war minister from 1878 to 1885.