Quadros, Jânio da Silva (zhäˈnyŏ dä sēlˈvə kwäˈdrŏs) [key], 1917–92, president of Brazil (Jan.–Aug., 1961). A schoolteacher and lawyer, he served as mayor of the city of (1953–54) and as governor of the state of São Paulo (1955–59). A political independent, he was elected president in 1960 by an unprecedented popular margin. He initiated reform measures, drastically cut government spending, and attempted to reduce economic dependence on the United States. Encountering opposition, especially in congress, he abruptly resigned (Aug., 1961), creating a national crisis before the controversial vice president, João Goulart, succeeded him. In 1964, after a military takeover in Brazil, Quadros was deprived of his political rights. After restoration of civilian government (1985) he again served as mayor of São Paulo.