Jean François Paul de Gondi Retz, Cardinal de
Retz, Jean François Paul de Gondi, Cardinal de (zhäN fräNswäˈ pōl də gôNdēˈ, də rĕts) [key], 1613–79, French prelate and political leader. He was made (1643) coadjutor to his uncle, the archbishop of Paris. An enemy of Cardinal Mazarin, chief minister for the regent Anne of Austria, Retz was prominent in the Fronde against him. To win Retz's support, Anne nominated him (1651) to be made cardinal; he received the red hat in 1652. At the close of the Fronde, Retz was imprisoned (1652). When his uncle died (1654), he became archbishop of Paris but was not allowed to take office. He appealed unsuccessfully to the pope. After Mazarin's death (1661) he resigned his see in return for several rich abbeys. He occasionally represented the court at Rome. His memoirs (1717; tr., 4 vol., 1723) are classic.
See biography by J. H. Salmon (1969).
See more Encyclopedia articles on: French History: Biographies