Robert of Geneva

Robert of Geneva, d. 1394, Genevan churchman, antipope (1378–94; see Schism, Great) with the name Clement VII. He was archbishop of Cambrai (1368) and was created (1371) a cardinal. He was subsequently papal legate in Italy, and he put down a rebellion at Cesena with great cruelty. In 1378, on the death of Gregory XI, Urban VI was elected, but the cardinals reconsidered and elected Robert instead. He went to Avignon at once, and the Great Schism had begun. He was recognized by France (his protector), Scotland (France's ally), Spain, and Naples. Several German states also recognized him. Portugal twice recognized and twice repudiated him. He was unsuccessful in trying to increase his support. He died just as the ideas that led to the conciliar theory (i.e., that councils, as opposed to the pope, have supreme authority) were being propagated from Paris. His successor at Avignon was Benedict XIII (see Luna, Pedro de).

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