Rupert, 1352–1410, German king (1400–1410), elector palatine of the Rhine. He was elected German king after the deposition of Wenceslaus. Seeking the imperial crown, Rupert went to Italy. He attempted to intervene in Italian affairs and regain the former imperial city of Milan from Gian Galeazzo Visconti, but he was defeated and returned impoverished to Germany in 1402. Recognized (1403) by the Roman Pope Boniface IX, he adhered to the Roman popes in the Great Schism. When he sent envoys to plead for Gregory XII at the Council of Pisa, the council refused to recognize his title. Rupert was unable to exercise any control over the warring cities and nobles. At his death, two successors were elected, but in 1411 he was succeeded by Sigismund.