Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris (rŭħˈərfərd) [key], 1816–92, American physicist, b. New York City, grad. Williams, 1834. From 1837 to 1849 he practiced law. Rutherfurd studied and experimented in celestial photography, especially in spectral analysis, in which he was a pioneer, and he invented several instruments for his work, including a micrometer for measuring positions on photographs, an apparatus for ruling diffraction gratings, and a telescope specially fitted for astronomical photography. He gave his instruments and collections of photographs to Columbia Univ., of which he was a trustee (1858–84).