Santa Cruz, Andrés (ändrāsˈ sänˈtä krōs) [key], 1792?–1865, president of Bolivia (1829–39). In 1820 he joined the revolutionists against Spain and, as Bolívar's chief of staff, participated in the decisive liberating battles of Junín and Ayacucho. To achieve his one great aim of a Peru-Bolivia confederation, Santa Cruz, elected president shortly after the resignation of Antonio José de Sucre, energetically set about establishing Bolivia on a sound footing. At the same time he carried on intrigues to foster trouble in Peru and Chile so that his confederation might be realized. When the opportunity came with internal disorder in Peru in 1835, Santa Cruz invaded and established himself as protector. However, at the battle of Yungay (1839) he was defeated by a coalition of his enemies under Manuel Bulnes of Chile and barely escaped to spend the remainder of his life in Europe in exile.