Schofield, John McAllister (skōˈfēld) [key], 1831–1906, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Gerry, N.Y. He taught at West Point (1855–60) and on the outbreak of the Civil War became chief of staff to Nathaniel Lyon in Missouri. He was brigadier general commanding Missouri troops (Nov., 1861–Apr., 1863) and commander of the Dept. of the Missouri (May, 1863–Jan., 1864). In Feb., 1864, he was given command of the Army of the Ohio, which he led in the Atlanta campaign. He opposed John B. Hood in Tennessee (Oct.–Dec., 1864), fighting at Franklin and Nashville. Schofield was Secretary of War under Andrew Johnson (1868–69) and held various commands until 1888, when he became commander of the U.S. army. He was appointed lieutenant general shortly before he retired in 1895.
See his Forty-six Years in the Army (1897); study by J. L. McDonough (1972).
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