Schumann-Heink, Ernestine (shōˈmən-hĪngk) [key], 1861–1936, Austrian-American contralto, b. near Prague. Her voice was distinguished for its richness and wide range. She studied with Marietta Leclair, made her concert debut in 1876 and her operatic debut two years later in Dresden in Il Trovatore. For many years she sang at Hamburg and Bayreuth, also appearing at London's Covent Garden in Wagnerian roles. After making her American debut in Chicago in 1898, she sang regularly (1899–1904) with the Metropolitan Opera Company, becoming a U.S. citizen in 1905. She had a repertory of 150 roles and was a fine actress, popular even when her voice had diminished.