Shammai (shäˈmĪ) [key], c.50 B.C.–c.A.D. 30, Jewish sage known for his opposition to the liberal teachings of Hillel. He and his school interpreted the Law extremely rigorously, emphasizing deed rather than intent. The conflict between the schools of Shammai and Hillel continued long after their leaders' deaths, with the school of Hillel gaining ascendancy after A.D. 70. However, a number of Shammai's decisions were adopted by all as authoritative.
See L. Ginzberg, On Jewish Law and Lore (1955).
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