Sousa, Martim Afonso de (mərtēmˈ əfônˈzō dĭ sōˈzə) [key], 1500?–1564, Portuguese colonial administrator. A military man, he was commissioned in 1530 to drive the French corsairs from the Brazilian coasts and to establish colonies. He succeeded in clearing the coasts, founded the colony of São Vicente, established sugarcane growing, and introduced other crops and cattle. He initiated the successful settlement and colonization of Brazil that was continued by Tomé de Sousa, Mem de Sá, and the Jesuits Manuel de Nóbrega and José de Anchieta.
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