Stanhope, Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl, 1805–75, English historian. He was undersecretary for foreign affairs (1834–35) in Sir Robert Peel's first ministry and secretary of the board of control (1845–46). He favored repeal of the corn laws and secured passage of the Copyright Act of 1842. Stanhope founded (1859) the National Portrait Gallery and was prime mover in organizing (1869) the Historical Manuscripts Commission. He wrote standard histories of the reign of Queen Anne (1870) and of the period from 1713 to 1783 (7 vol., 1836–54; repr. 1968).