Strauss, Emil (āmēlˈ shtrous) [key], 1866–1960, German novelist. His writings exemplify the transition from naturalism to impressionism by containing elements of both. His novel Freund Hein (1902) rapidly gained fame for its portrayal of a tyrannical German secondary school. In it, as in his plays, in the short stories of Hans und Grete (1909), and in such novels as Kreuzungen (1904), he exalted the virtues of experience and of free moral and creative development. Vaterland (1923) and later works stress patriotism above personal happiness.