Taylor, Brook, 1685–1731, English mathematician. He originated Taylor's theorem, a formula important in differential calculus, which relates a function to its derivatives by means of a power series. This theorem was set forth in his Methodus incrementorum directa et inversa (1715), which gave the first published treatment of the calculus of finite differences. His Linear Perspective (1715) expounded the principle of vanishing points and was of value to artists. His solution to the problem of the center of oscillation led to a translation into mathematical terms of the mechanical principles governing the vibration of a string.