Geofroy Tory

Tory, Geofroy (zhôfrwäˈ tôrēˈ) [key], c.1480–1533, Parisian printer, typographer, and author, b. Bourges. After study in Italy, he won distinction as a professor in Paris and became editor to the printer Henri Estienne. He took up drawing and engraving and returned to Italy to study (1516–18). He worked as a bookbinder, Grolier being one of his clients. As designer and engraver he produced beautiful initials, borders, and illustrations, as well as his famous printer's mark (a broken jar) and that of Robert Estienne (an olive tree). His Book of Hours, which first appeared in 1525, introduced type design free from dependence on handwriting and established book designing as an art in France. His part in establishing French 16th-century printing of superb quality was recognized by his appointment as printer to the king (Francis I). Tory's writings include Champfleury (1529), wherein he explains and illustrates the theory governing his designs of roman capitals. Tory advocated the use of the French language; he introduced accents, the apostrophe, and the cedilla into the printing of French.

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