Toy, Crawford Howell, 1836–1919, American biblical scholar, b. Norfolk, Va., M.A. Univ. of Virginia, 1856. He also studied (1859–60) at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Greenville, S.C., served as a chaplain in the Confederate army, and continued (1866–68) his studies at Berlin. He resigned the professorship he held (1869–79) at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary because of theological controversy. From 1880 until his retirement (1909) he was Hancock professor of Hebrew and other Oriental languages at Harvard, and he was (1880–1903) Dexter lecturer on biblical literature. A member (1901–6) of the editorial board of The Jewish Encyclopedia and a contributor to learned journals, he wrote Judaism and Christianity (1890), A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Proverbs (1899), and Introduction to the History of Religions (1913).