Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim, 1912–89, American historian, b. New York City. She won the Pulitzer Prize for history twice, for The Guns of August (1962), about the onset of World War I, and for Stilwell and the American Experience in China (1971). Her other works include The Zimmermann Telegram (1958); A Distant Mirror (1978), a study of the 14th cent.; and Practicing History (1982), an essay collection.