See his collected letters, ed. by E. M. Branch et al. (1987); his correspondence with William Dean Howells, ed. by F. Anderson et al. (1967); his notebooks, ed. by F. Anderson et al. (3 vol., 1975–80); his autobiography, ed. by C. Neider (1959); Mark Twain's Autobiography (2003); The Autobiography of Mark Twain (Vol. 1, 2010), ed. by H. E. Smith et al.; biographies by A. B. Paine (1924); J. Kaplan (1966, repr. 2003), H. Hill (1973, repr. 2010), A. Hoffman (1997), F. Kaplan (2003), R. Powers (2005), and J. Loving (2010); studies by W. D. Howells (1910), B. De Voto (1932), H. N. Smith (1967), V. W. Brooks (rev. ed. 1933, repr. 1970), W. Gibson (1976), R. Morris, Jr. (2010); G. Scharnhorst (2010); F. Anderson and K. M. Sanderson, ed., Mark Twain: The Critical Heritage (1972) and S. F. Fishkin, ed., The Mark Twain Anthology: Great Writers on His Life and Works (2010).
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