See Wagner's prose works (8 vol., tr. 1892–99); his letters (ed. by J. N. Burk, 1950, repr. 1972); his autobiography, My Life (tr. 1911, repr. 1974); biographies by E. Newman (4 vol., 1933–46) and M. Geck (tr. 2013); studies by G. Skelton (1976, repr. 1982) and B. Millington (rev. ed. 1992, 2002, 2006, and 2012). See also biographies of Cosima Wagner by R. M. F. du Moulin-Eckart (2 vol., tr. 1930) and A. H. Sokoloff (1969); W. Wagner, Acts (1994); G. Wagner, Twilight of the Wagners: The Unveiling of a Family's Legacy (1999); N. Wagner, The Wagners: The Dramas of a Musical Dynasty (2001); J. Carr, The Wagner Clan (2008).