William the Lion, 1143–1214, king of Scotland (1165–1214), brother and successor of Malcolm IV. Determined to recover Northumbria (lost to England in 1157), he supported the rebellion (1173–74) of the sons of Henry II of England. The result was that he was captured by Henry, who forced him to sign the Treaty of Falaise (1174), making Scotland a feudal possession of England. Released in 1175, he immediately asked the pope to declare the Scottish church free of English domination. A quarrel with the pope delayed the decision, but, in 1188, Pope Clement III declared the church in Scotland subject only to Rome. In 1189, William was able to buy annulment of the Treaty of Falaise from Richard I of England for 10,000 marks. After the succession (1199) of King John in England, William once more demanded the restoration of Northumbria but was finally forced (1209) by show of arms to abandon the claim. William put down several revolts within Scotland and furthered somewhat the process of feudalization in the kingdom. His alliance (1168) with Louis VII of France began a long friendship between France and Scotland, later to be known as the Auld Alliance. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander II.
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