Williams, Robert R., Jr., 1886–1965, American chemist, b. India, grad. Univ. of Chicago (B.S., 1907); brother of Roger John Williams. Research undertaken in 1910, while he was chemist (1908–15) at the Manila Bureau of Science, the Philippines, culminated, during his association (1925–45) with the Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York City, in his isolation (1933) of vitamin B1 (thiamine) from a syrup of rice polishings. In 1936 he synthesized the vitamin. He was director of grants of the Research Corp., New York City (1945–51). Williams is noted also for his work in alipathic chemistry and in rubber chemistry.