Zweig, Stefan (shtĕfˈän tsvĪk) [key], 1881–1942, Austrian biographer, poet, and novelist. Born in Vienna of a well-to-do Jewish family, he was part of the humanitarian, pan-European cultural circle that included Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Richard Strauss. Zweig's first works were poetry and a poetic drama, Jeremias (1917, tr. 1929), which expressed his passionately antiwar feelings. During the 1920s and 30s Zweig was extremely popular and the most translated writer in Europe. With the rise of National Socialism, his works were condemned throughout the German-speaking world. He fled into exile in 1934, emigrating first to England, then to New York. In 1941 he and his second wife went to Brazil, where they subsquently committed suicide. Zweig's best-known works of fiction are Ungeduld des Herzens (1938, tr. Beware of Pity, 1939) and Schachnovelle (1944, tr. The Royal Game, 1944), but his most outstanding accomplishments were his many biographies, which were based on psychological interpretation. The subjects of these include Marie Antoinette, Erasmus, Mary Queen of Scots, Magellan, Balzac, and Verlaine. Zweig's historical perception is best evident in Sternstunden der Menschheit (1928, tr. The Tide of Fortune, 1940).
See his autobiography, The World of Yesterday (1943); biographies by D. A. Prater (1972), E. Allday (1972), and O. Matuschek (2012).