The treatment of alcoholism depends on how far the disease has progressed. Treatment typically begins with professional advice or self-motivation to abstain, often coupled with medical efforts to achieve sobriety. In the presence of withdrawal symptoms, antianxiety drugs such as benzodiazepines may be prescribed. A next step is often enrollment in a treatment program suitable to the severity of the disease and patient's social stability. Residential programs offer a supportive atmosphere and a structured environment in which the patient can begin to learn how to restructure his or her life and develop new habits. Many programs educate the family as well, alerting them to patterns within the family that may have enabled the patient to keep drinking. Because alcoholism is a chronic recurring and relapsing disease, treatment programs are usually followed by membership in a support group such as Alcoholics Anonymous.
Medical treatment to help ensure continued sobriety includes self-administration of drugs such as Antabuse, which produces severe discomfort if present in the system when alcohol is consumed. Naltrexone, a drug formerly used in heroin abuse, and acamprosate are also now approved for use in the treatment of alcoholism. Naltrexone minimizes both the craving for alcohol and the "high" produced by its consumption. Acamprosate reduces the craving for alcohol in people who have stopped drinking. In addition to these standard treatments, many alcoholics are aided by alternative treatments such as acupuncture and hypnosis.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.