asthma

asthma (ăzˈmə, ăsˈ–) [key], chronic inflammatory respiratory disease characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. A cough producing sticky mucus is symptomatic. The symptoms often appear to be caused by the body's reaction to a trigger such as an allergen (commonly pollen, house dust, animal dander: see allergy), certain drugs, an irritant (such as cigarette smoke or workplace chemicals), exercise, or emotional stress. These triggers can cause the asthmatic's lungs to release chemicals that create inflammation of the bronchial lining, constriction, and bronchial spasms. If the effect on the bronchi becomes severe enough to impede exhalation, carbon dioxide can build up in the lungs and lead to unconsciousness and death. Following a steady 30-year decline, asthma deaths in the United States, especially among poor, inner-city blacks and among the elderly, began to rise from the late 1970s through the early 1990s. At the same time, the incidence of asthma also increased, both nationally and worldwide.

There is no cure for asthma. Although the disease may go through a period of quiescence, it appears that childhood asthmatics do not outgrow the disease as previously believed. Treatment includes inhaled or oral steroids or bronchodilators (albuterol, theophylline), breathing exercises, and, if possible, the identification and avoidance of triggers.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

More on asthma from Fact Monster:

  • sympathomimetic drug - sympathomimetic drug sympathomimetic drug , any of a group of substances whose actions resemble the ...
  • amphetamine: Uses - Uses Prescription amphetamines have been used for short periods of time in weight-control programs ...
  • epinephrine - epinephrine epinephrine , hormone important to the body's metabolism, also known as adrenaline. ...
  • dermatitis - dermatitis dermatitis , nonspecific irritation of the skin. The causative agent may be a bacterium, ...
  • John and Eliza Webb - John and Eliza Webb Florida homesteaders In 1867, John and Eliza Webb left their home in Utica, ...

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Pathology