bioethics

bioethics, in philosophy, a branch of ethics concerned with issues surrounding health care and the biological sciences. These issues include the morality of abortion, euthanasia, in vitro fertilization, and organ transplants (see transplantation, medical). In the 1970s bioethics emerged as a discipline with its own experts, often professional philosophers, who developed university courses on the subject. Many hospitals now employ experts on bioethics to advise on such issues as how to treat terminally ill patients and to allocate limited resources. Advances in health care, the development of genetic testing and screening, and the new research in genetic engineering, including gene therapy, have also given rise to questions in bioethics.

See W. T. Reich, ed., Encyclopedia of Bioethics (4 vol., 1978); H. T. Engelhardt, The Foundations of Bioethics (1986); R. Macklin, Mortal Choices: Bioethics in Today's World (1987).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

More on bioethics from Fact Monster:

  • ethics: Twentieth-Century Ethical Thought - Twentieth-Century Ethical Thought Among ethical theories debated in the first half of the 20th ...
  • Ben Carson - Biography of Ben Carson, Prominent children's neurosurgeon and motivational speaker
  • Encyclopedia: Medicine - Encyclopeadia articles concerning Medicine.
  • euthanasia - euthanasia euthanasia , either painlessly putting to death or failing to prevent death from natural ...

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Medicine