Risk to humans from carcinogens depends upon the dose and a person's biologic susceptibility. Factors influencing a person's biological susceptibility to cancer include age, sex, immune status, nutritional status, genetics, and ethnicity. Only 5% of all cancers in the United States are thought to be explained by inherited genetic mutations. Known genes associated with hereditary cancer include the aberrant BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that increase breast cancer risk and the HNPCC gene that is linked with colon cancer. In hereditary forms, it is often the normal gene of the allele that is injured or destroyed, leaving the abnormal inherited gene in control. Nonhereditary cancers sometimes involve the same gene mutations that hereditary forms have.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.