See F. J. Britten, Old Clocks and Watches and Their Makers (1976); D. S. Landes, Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World (1985); J. E. Barnett, Time's Pendulum: The Quest to Capture Time from Sundials to Atomic Clocks (1998); E. Bruton, Collector's Dictionary of Clocks and Watches (1999); J. Jesperson and J. Fitz-Randolph, From Sundials to Atomic Clocks: Understanding Time and Frequency (2d ed. 1999).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.