The simplest gas laws relate pressure, volume, and temperature in pairs. Boyle's law (advanced by Robert Boyle in 1662) states that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional to one another, or PV = k, where P is pressure, V is volume, and k is a constant of proportionality. Charles's law (published by Jacques A. C. Charles in 1787), sometimes known as Gay-Lussac's law (independently demonstrated by Joseph Gay-Lussac in 1802), states that the volume of an enclosed gas is directly proportional to its temperature, or V = kT. This expression is strictly true only if the temperature is measured on an absolute scale. A third law states that the pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature, or P = kT.