Treatment approaches vary with the motivation, background, and support system of the addict. Treatment of withdrawal may include palliative medication. Methadone maintenance is a controversial treatment that substitutes methadone for heroin then gradually decreases the dose until the user is drug free. Levomethadyl acetate (LAAM) and buprenorphine also have been approved for maintenance treatment of heroin addiction. Other treatment approaches may include psychological counseling, 12-step peer support groups such as Narcotics Anonymous, and educational and vocational services in residential or nonresidential settings.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.