Distribution of Interstellar Matter
Compared to the size of an entire galaxy, stars are virtually points, so that the region occupied by the interstellar matter constitutes nearly all the physical volume of a galaxy. Although the density of interstellar matter is far lower than in the best laboratory vacuum, the total mass contained between stars is about 5% of the mass of the universe. Interstellar matter is mostly gaseous, but about 1% is interstellar grains or dust. The grains are not distributed uniformly in space but are found in clumpy clouds.
Some of the interstellar material is visible, sometimes through small telescopes, as nebulae. In the vicinity of bright stars the grains appear as glowing regions because of the intensity of the light they scatter; these regions are called reflection nebulae. Regions where the clouds are so thick that they obscure all starlight are called dark nebulae. Highly ionized matter, densely clustered around a hot star, is visible by the light emitted by the ions and electrons when they recombine; this is called an emission nebula.
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