Two methods of producing magnesium commercially are used. The principal method is the electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride, which is used in the extraction of magnesium from seawater (the principal source) and from dolomite. In recovery from seawater, the magnesium is precipitated as magnesium hydroxide by treatment with lime (calcium oxide) obtained from oyster shells. The hydroxide is collected and treated with hydrochloric acid to form the chloride. The chloride is fused and electrolyzed, forming magnesium metal and chlorine gas. The molten metal is cast into ingots for further processing; the chlorine gas is made into hydrochloric acid and is reused to form magnesium chloride. About 1 lb of magnesium is recovered from each 100 gal of seawater; the oceans are a virtually inexhaustible source of this metal. A second method of magnesium production, called the ferrosilicon process, involves the reduction of magnesium oxide (prepared by calcining dolomite) with an iron-silicon alloy.
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