Many women experience painful menstruation, or dysmenorrhea. The uterine contractions that result in the cramps experienced by these women appear to be caused by hormones called prostaglandins that are produced in the second half of the cycle. Oral contraceptives and other drugs that reduce the production of prostaglandins are sometimes used in treatment. Other women experience symptoms such as behavioral changes, breast tenderness, and fatigue during the week immediately preceding menstruation, a condition referred to as premenstrual syndrome, or PMS.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.