Radical treatments for weight loss have included wiring shut the jaw, operations that reduce the size of the stomach, and intestinal bypass operations circumventing a large area of the small intestine, limiting the area where food is absorbed. The "diet pills" of the 1960s, essentially amphetamines such as Dexedrine, are now seldom prescribed for weight loss. Fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, drugs formerly used to achieve short-term weight loss, were withdrawn from the market following concerns that they could cause heart valve damage. Drugs to treat obesity now include orlistat (Xenical), which acts to block absorption of dietary fat in the intestine. In 2007 an over-the-counter version of orlistat was approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
Although the study of obesity is yielding many possibilities for treatment, the main focus remains diet (especially a diet limiting fat calories) and exercise, often coupled with emotional and behavioral support. The long-term weight-loss success of most attempts at dieting, however, is notoriously low. Groups such as Overeaters Anonymous, modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous, give support to people with weight problems and eating disorders.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.