Introductionsulfur or sulphur (sŭlˈfər) [key], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol S; at. no. 16; interval in which at. wt. ranges 32.059–32.076; m.p. 112.8°C (rhombic), 119.0°C (monoclinic), about 120°C (amorphous); b.p. 444.674°C; sp. gr. at 20°C, 2.07 (rhombic), 1.957 (monoclinic), 1.92 (amorphous); valence - 2, +4, or +6. Sulfur was known to the ancients; it is the brimstone of the Bible. It was first recognized as an element in 1777 by A. L. Lavoisier.
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